Baill, as well as its reaction in the pedo-climatic conditions of the Republic zona 30 km suisse anti aging Moldova. It is propagated vegetatively and generatively with some difficulty. In the case of generative propagation, in order to obtain a high germination percentage, the seeds are stratified in three phases, at different temperatures and are sown in spring. Schisandra chinensis is also propagated by greenwood cuttings, semi-hardwood or hardwood cuttings, by layering or by division.
The best results were obtained by using semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings taken in summer, in June-July, from younger plants. The potential for in vitro propagation of this species was also tested. Key words: propagation, cutting, climber, medicinal plant, Schisandraceae Introduction The pedoclimatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova are relatively favourable for non-traditional fruit shrubs which, as they easily adapt to the environment they can be successfully introduced into culture.
Also, on zona 30 km suisse anti aging market in the republic of Moldova there is an increasing interest for the introduction into culture of some new plant species from the spontaneous flora. One of these species is the Magnolia vine — Schisandra chinensis Turz.
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This species is utilized as an ornamental and medicinal plant. As an ornamental plant it is a decorative climber used for decorating balconies, terraces and buildings. The majority of vegetative and generative organs contain many biologically active substances, but the most important one is schizandrine and its derivatives. The fruits, leaves, bark and seeds are used. The infusion obtained from leaves, shoots and fruits is used for stimulating the vitality of the body as a whole, for stimulating the activity of the heart, for calming the nervous system.
The extract, decoction, tincture prepared from fruits and seeds is used for treating tuberculosis, bronchytic asthma, gastritis, hepatitis, kidneys, dysenteria in children and other diseases that cause the weakening of the organism. The juice, the fresh fruits as well as the tincture from the leaves, fruits and shoots is used as an 1 The Botanical Garden Institute AŞM, Chişinău — Republic of Moldova, e-mail: ninaciorchina mail. The tea from leaves and shoots has a pleasant flavour similar to that of lemon and it has zona 30 km suisse anti aging slightly sour taste.
The essential oils extracted from this plant are used for decreasing the glucide content of the blood. The use of Schisandra chinensis fruits in small amounts is recommended for people that suffer from insomnia, who have psychical problems or high arterial blood pressure and dysfunctions of heart activity.
The fruits are also used in the cosmetic industry and food industry confectionery, marmelades, chocolatesin the production of soap and detergents. It is cultured by some amateurs and it can be found in several botanical gardens worldwide. Ecological requirements. It withstands zona 30 km suisse anti aging temperatures and shaded places.
It grows fast. It can be cultured on sandy soils.
On soils rich in humus it develops better. It does not withstand acidic, dense, compact soils. Morpho-biological peculiarities. Schisandra chinensis is a climber that can reach heights of m and 1. The roots are branched, situated close to soil surface.
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The shoots, the roots and the fruits are smelling. The stem of this climber is dark brown in colour and can reach 2 cm in thickness and winds around the trellis in clockwise direction. The leaves are altern, ovate, cm in length, the petiole is reddish.
The flowers are white, aromatic, they have a pinkish nuance towards the end of flowering. The fruits are of an intense red colour, juicy, sour, spherical, mm in length, usually with one seed. The buds are mixed, oval in shape, a little lengthened and pointed.
Flowering and fruiting takes place on the annual shoots Fig. The Magnolia vine is propagated vegetatively and generatively with great difficulty. The seeds are sown quickly in the autumn after harvest or in spring after stratification. There are few scientific papers regarding the micropropagation of Schisandra sinesnsis. Experiments were carried out regarding the possibility for the propagation of this species by seeds, by cuttings and by micropropagation.
Observations were done regarding the growth and development of the species in the conditions of the Republic of Moldova as well as experiments regarding the possibilities for the propagation of this species.
For vegetative propagation the collecting and making of cuttings was carried out in summer, at the end of June and a the beginning of July when the shoots of the mother plant start to lignify.
Lignified as well as semi-hardwood cuttings were made using well galme dupa acid hialuronic instruments, and the time for harvesting the shoots was in the morning. The cuttings had cm in length, with nodes.
For propagation by hardwood cuttings the cuttings were made zona 30 km suisse anti aging February and March before the beginning of the vegetation period. The cuttings were kept zona 30 km suisse anti aging sand and sawdust until the danger of frost at ground level passed and then they were planted into cold frames. The cuttings were subjected to treatment with a weak pink in colour solution of KMnO4 and with growth regulators, with IBA at 0.
After one year the cuttings were planted into containers or in the open field. Having in view that by generative propagation some qualities specific to the mother plant appear or disappear and vegetative propagation presents some difficulty, the initiation of in vitro cultures was tested for this species.
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The plant material consisted in various explant types: apical meristems, lateral meristems of the 2 nd3 rd4 th5 th and 6 th degree, fragments of juvenile leaves, shoot fragments from the apical part, shoot fragments with lateral meristem, Fragments of young leaves with veins, ovules, ovary with a fragment from the stem, stem fragment with the apical meristem.
For culture initiation nine experimental variants were tested, with MS basal medium and various concentrations of plant hormones Tab. The operations were carried out according to the standard laboratory procedures. Results and discussions The research and observations carried out in a period of several years in various ecological conditions show that Schisandra chinensis develops differently according to the zone.
It was found that Schisandra prefers rich, humid, loose soil and zones of shadow. In the sunny places in the Republic of moldova growth is inhibited. It does not withstand drought and high air temperatures in the period of vegetation. It is resistant to frost. It withstands temperatures even as zona 30 km suisse anti aging as o C.
In the drought-stricken years, irrigation and soil loosening is necessary. Fertilization or the addition of chernozem to the roots of the plants is recommended. Growth per decade is about 20 cm. The root system is superficial and can reach to depths of 25 cm.
The young shoots are greenish-grey and, as they mature, they become reddish-brown. The plant is monoecious, the flowers are monosexuate. In the conditions of the Republic of Moldova it flowers in May-June.
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Since the beginning of bud development until their sprouting there is a period of days. The flowering period is of days. The fruits fully mature in days. The flowers that have strong flavour are small, up to 1.
The flowers are white, with pink nuances and they develop on the annual shoots. The Magnolia vine sets fruit starting from the age of years. Schisandra chinensis Turcz. Its leaves fall down right from the beginning of September.
In the meteorological conditions of the Republic of Moldova the species has a period of profound dormancy, which confers resistance to low temperatures during winter and and to late frosts in spring. In late spring the plant enters the vegetation period, which has a duration of days depending upon the meteorological conditions of the year sum of temperatures and amount of precipitations.
Another factor that favourizes the development of this zona 30 km suisse anti aging is the presence of phreatic water at shallow depths. Propagation by seeds.
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The plants obtained in this way have well developed roots and will set fruit at the age of years Fig. But in Schisandra chinensis Turcz. In order to keep the characteristics and qualities of the cultivar, vegetative propagation by cuttings is recommended Fig. The advantage of propagation by zona 30 km suisse anti aging is that the cuttings are selected from healthy, vigorous and productive plants and plant material with the same characteristics is obtained.
The rooting capacity of the cuttings also depends on the biological features of each species, soil conditions and the special interventions for stimulating the cuttings. Such, in the process of root formation, some sier anti aging like auxin stimulate growth, which can also be achieved artificially by treating the omade crema antirid with stimulating substances, for example heteroauxin.
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The success of the culture of cuttings depends upon the amount of nutritive substances that they contain and the conditions offereed to them when planting — a well prepared, loosened, fertile, well aerated soil and sufficient humidity. The roots of the cuttings result from the root rudiments, which are groups of meristematic cells localized in the contact point of creme vichy pareri medullary rays with the cambium.
The root rudiments are formed long the axis of the shoot, with higher densities at the base of the shoot, close to the axillary buds.
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As a result of the cut made by making the cutting from the harvested shoot, a primary parenchimatic tissue named callus is formed, which has the role of cicatrizing the wound and which, later, forms a cambium with adventitious buds from which the roots develop. Until the formation of roots, the cuttings consumes the nutritive substances from its own reserves.
The cuttings are made from the sunny part of the plant, from the lower and midle part of the vine. In the first weeks the cuttings should be watered times a day, and then once a day, then times a week. Propagation by hardwood cuttings winter cuttings in cold frames needs a well processed substrate, loosened to the depth of 40 cm, with rich aeration and humidity. The cuttings were kept in sand and sawdust until the danger of frost at ground level passed, then they were planted in cold frames.
During the insertion of the cuttings into the substrate, the cutting has to adhere well to the particles of the substrate and for this purpose the substrate has to be well prepared and loosened so as to prevent the bruising and wounding of the cutting.
Burying the cuttings into the substrate is done vertically, with the buds upwards and at cm below substrate level, so as to prevent the drying out of the tips of the cuttings.
Harvesting the shoots for making the cuttings is done from special zona 30 km suisse anti aging of mother plants. One year old shoots are harvested, from which the cuttings are made with a masca de fata naturala knife. The cuttings should be straight, well formed, they should have at least 2 buds, without mechanical lesions. The length of the cuttings was of minimum cm and the thickness mm at the upper end.
For making the cuttings, the upper part of the shoots, which is not sufficiently lignified, should not be used. The cuts should be smooth, perpendicular on the axis of the shoot, without cracks and bark exfoliations. The cut at the upper end should be at cm above the bud.
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After being cut, the cuttings should be put into KMnO4 solution and then immediately fixed into sand in vertical or slightly bent position, leaving the upper end at 1 cm above the sand, placed into the greenhouse or cold frame, where humid air should be provided to them, as well as the free access of oxygen to their basal end and an optimal regime of heat and light.
These conditions can be zona 30 km suisse anti aging by the correct construction of the cold frame, by inserting the cuttings at 0. For constructing the cold frame, one should take care that between the surface of the sand and the window of the cold frame there should be cm of space.
Before inserting the cuttings the sand should be watered abundantly with boiling water and with KMnO4 solution. The cuttings should be put at distances of cm between the rows and cm in the row. Immediately after inserting the cuttings, fine spraying is applied and the frame is covered completely.
The cuttings should be sprayed times in zona 30 km suisse anti aging sunny days and times in the cloudy days and in the evening the weeds and the zona 30 km suisse anti aging cuttings should be pulled out.
After rooting, the frames should be opened gradually, so that the plantlets get accustomed to the outer environment and then kept open permanently and watering should be done until October. The cuttings which have grown good roots until October should be taken out and transferred into the nursery or into containers and they should be watered and shaded during warm days.
If they do not have well developed roots in October, the cuttings should be kept in the cold frame, covered with sawdust, until spring. The root system of the cuttings is relatively poorly developed and one should keep in mind that the roots reach to a depth of just cm under ground level. The length of the first-order root system in the plants obtained from semihardwood cuttings reach to cm in length from summer till next spring.
In the case of propagation by root cuttings, the resulting plants are poorly developed. In vitro propagation. In Tab. The following explant types also reacted positively: shoot fragment from the apical part, shoot fragment with apical meristem. The reaction of all the explant types on the nine variants of media is presented in Tab.
Conclusions Schisandra chinensis Turcz. It can be propagated generatively or vegetatively.
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As a result of the process of propagation by hardwood and semi-hardwood cuttings, uniform genetic material is obtained, healthy, vigorous plantlets that posess the features and qualities of the mother plant. The rooting of the cuttings depends on several factors: the quality of the cuttings and of the substrate, The conditions for the growth and development of the mother plants, respecting the optimal timeframes for propagation by cuttings and correctly applying the technology of propagation by cuttings, the density of the cuttings in the cold frame etc.
For obtaining a higher rooting percentage of Schisandra chinensis Turcz. It is necessary to select the shoots from young plants, which were also obtained by vegetative propagation, in the 20 th of June th of July, which coincides with the end of flowering and the beginning of fruit set. The optimal substrate for the vegetative propagation of Schisandra chinensis Turcz. Among the rhyzogenesis stimulators used for rooting the semi-hardwood Schizandara chinensis Turcz.
The plants obtained from cuttings as well as the ones obtained from seeds are very sensitive to low temperatures in the spring in the first years, hence the plants must be protected by leaves. Among the 10 types of explants tested for in vitro culture initiation in Schisandra chinensis Turcz. The explants consisting of shoot fragments from the zona 30 km suisse anti aging part and shoot fragments with apical meristem also had positive reaction.